[Mastwatch] Flowering in Sabah

Peter Shaw Ashton pashton at oeb.harvard.edu
Tue Oct 20 09:11:40 PDT 2009

Dear Colin, Shoko - and others?
This is all quite fascinating. The data available since c.1958 suggests to me that, in the northern dipterocarp flowering province (i.e. generally February-April but occasionally July-September) there has been a tendency for a light flowering early in each decade and a stronger one late in it. Areas which seem to be mainly in the southern flowering province, such as E. Borneo, seem to have a more mixed track record.
For Shoko: There was a student from Osaka City U. some years back who studied flowering phenology of merantis at Lambir, but never published (I think). (was her name Suzuki?). Her work seemed to indicate some fascinating patterns, which I hope it is not too late for you to check. I remember the following:
-Groups of related species do flower in overlapping sequence, as at Pasoh, but there is much more confusion because there are so many more species; however:
-Species in Shorea sec. Mutica, if  separated into two series - of sandy and on clay soils, then conform much more convincingly to the Pasoh pattern. The big exception seemed to be the species related to S. macroptera (with two subspecies, one more on clay, one on sandy soil, S. acuta and S. slootenii (sandy), S. ferruginea (clay) and S. myrionerva (clay, streams), all of which seemed to flower simultaneously right at the beginning. It would also be really interesting to check population samples of these species for fruit with variable but high multiple seeds/seedlings, implying adventive polyembrony, that Awtar Kaur found in S. macroptera at Pasoh.
-The yellow merantis completely ovedrlapped with the reds, but may also have two series, on each soil. The evidence was less clear among them.
What other pollinators are you discovering?


From: mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net on behalf of Colin Maycock
Sent: Sun 10/18/2009 10:00 PM
To: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] Flowering in Sabah

Hi All,

Things are a bit different in Sabah.

In Sepilok
We had a big flowering of Parashoreas (P. malaanonan and P. tomentella) in Sepilok in late May, plus a few trees of Shorea leprosula & S. johorensis and 1 Shorea seminis. We had another small flowering of the Parashorea, plus a few other species Vatica rassak, Dryobalanops lanceolata & Shorea almon in September. And for the tenth year running - I don't think we are going to see any significant recruitment in Sepilok.

In other parts:
We had a big flowering in parts of the upland MDFs of the Trus Madi FR in early August - with S. parvifolia, S.parvistipulata, S johorensis, S. platyclados, S. ovata, H. montana, H. plagata and P. malaanonan all flowering.

We also had a smallish flowering in the upland MDF of Mt Kinabalu in July/August - with S. hopeifolia, Dipterocarpus ochreaus and D. humeratus flowering. There have also been flowerings in the Sungai Imbak, Lingkabau amd Timimbang FR - from what I've seen they aren't huge and it is unlikely there will be any significant natural recruitment. Especially as we are stripping most of the interesting trees (i.e. non-Parashoreas) of their seed crops for restoration work in Sabah.


--- On Sat, 10/17/09, Sakai Shoko <shokosakai at chikyu.ac.jp> wrote:

> From: Sakai Shoko <shokosakai at chikyu.ac.jp>
> Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] Mast at Gunung Palung
> To: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net
> Date: Saturday, October 17, 2009, 7:12 AM
> Dear Cam and others,
> We are also seeing relatively large flowering in Lambir,
> Sarawak.
> Flowering are especially intensive around the canopy crane
> plot, where flowering is the largest since the
> establishment of the plot in 2000. Probably 70 % of canopy
> trees have some flowers/fruits, while it is not so much at
> some other areas of the park probably.
> Flowering of Dryobalanops has already finished one month
> ago, while many Shorea species are still flowering.
> This year we had minor flowering in June, thus some
> dipterocarp trees have both flowers and almost
> mature fruits. We are observing flower visitors, but we see
> less giant honey bee hives comparing with flowering 1996.
> I heard that flowering also occurred in the upper Baram,
> some part of Sabah, and around Kuching.
> We already enjoy plenty of durians in local markets.
> Shoko SAKAI
> > Dear `Borneo mast followers,'
> >
> > I just came down (on Wednesday) from a short trip to
> Cabang Panti Research Station, Gunung Palung National Park,
> West Kalimantan (110.105, -1.215). I had been hearing rumors
> of Shorea flowering and went to confirm these.
> >
> > Indeed, it seems like we are seeing a big flowering in
> the alluvial forest and adjacent lowlands.  I estimate
> that ca. 80% of the large (>70cm DBH) red and yellow
> meranti are in flower, some with huge crops (leaves
> invisible behind a mass of yellow petals).  Species
> that I noted in flower include: S. parvifolia, pauciflora,
> johorensis, leprasula, parvistipulata ssp. paristipulata,
> hopeifolia.  Species already with fruit included
> pinanga, macrophylla (already large), gibbosa.  I
> didn't see any selangan batu or white meranti
> reproductive.  Also, while there were a few fallen
> Dipterocarpus sublamellatus flowers, this dominant species
> at CP was generally not flowering.  Other rarely
> flowering taxa that are now in flower or fruit include:
> Castanopsis, Lophopetalum (x 2 spp), Kokoona, several
> Baccaurea, Sloanea, Alangium, Durio, Gonystylus, lots of
> Macaranga with huge crops, Salacia, Dyera, Nephelium,
> Parkia, Triomma, Sindora.
> >
> > I went to ca. 150 m elevation on the granite-derived
> soils and did not see any evidence of Shorea or
> Dipterocarpus fertile up there, so this event seems
> restricted to the more fertile alluvium and
> sandstone-derived soils. Perhaps the hill forest will
> follow?
> >
> > So, not sure how big the fruiting will be, but this is
> the biggest Shorea flowering I've personally seen. 
> Fruit fall should be sometime in February.  Hopefully
> we get a big seedling flush this time; seedling densities in
> plots in the granite measured in 2007 were at the lowest
> they have been since the plots were established in 1993.
> >
> > The team who has been collecting with me is now in the
> forest.  Let me know if there is anything you
> especially would like to see.  We'll post the data as
> soon as we can at: http://phylodiversity.net/xmalesia/
> >
> > If you know of other parts of Borneo or Peninsular
> Malaysia flowering, please post to this group.
> >
> > Best,
> >
> > Cam
> >
> >
> >
> >
> >
> > _______________________________________________
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> > Mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net
> > http://lists.phylodiversity.net/listinfo.cgi/mastwatch-phylodiversity.net
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