[Mastwatch] West Kal Mast

Ghazoul Jaboury jaboury.ghazoul at env.ethz.ch
Thu Mar 28 09:04:20 PDT 2019


I have been following this thread with interest. I agree that rare windy events have a substantial impact on dispersal. I have seen very large numbers of dipterocarp fruit dispersed great distances (100s of metres) during strong winds, albeit in rather open dry deciduous dipterocarp forests in Thailand. I have also seen large quantities of fruit being dispersed several tens of metres (at least) from dipterocarps in Sepilok, although this was in forest edge conditions.

Genetic studies suggest that dipterocarp seed dispersal can be quite substantial, and while no doubt the large majority of fruit are dropped close to the mother tree (see Smith et al. 2018 for a multispecies comparative assessment of this) what really matters are those seeds that survive, establish, and grow.

I have always been curious about why some dipterocarp species lost their wings. If substantial numbers of fruit do get caught in canopies and fail to establish, then there should be strong selection pressure against wings. I would expect strongly shade tolerant species to be more likely to have non-winged fruit. Wings are also likely to be of little value for subcanopy species, or those in dense forests, both in terms of dispersal function and shade tolerance traits (e.g., large fruit sizes). Localities that experience little wind such as, perhaps, sheltered riparian species, might be less likely to have wings than ridgetop species.

Jaboury


From: Mastwatch <mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net> On Behalf Of Chuck Cannon
Sent: 28 March 2019 15:44
To: Ashton, Peter <pashton at oeb.harvard.edu>
Cc: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast

Great discussion, everyone.

I agree with Tim Laman's remark about how these forests are largely shaped by rare events (that are statistically almost impossible to analyze) and trees do an enormous amount of bet hedging and experimentation in an attempt to win one of those lotteries.  A single tree probably does not pursue a single strategy for getting its seeds into an advantageous position but is simultaneously making numerous wagers.

In line with Peter's observation about the ones on more specialized and localized habitats having poorer dispersal abilities, you see the same thing in Lithocarpus.  The stone oaks are another group with rather mysterious dispersal.

Chuck

On Thu, Mar 28, 2019 at 9:18 AM Ashton, Peter <pashton at oeb.harvard.edu<mailto:pashton at oeb.harvard.edu>> wrote:

One further obs: There are a higher proportion of endemic dipterocarp species on ecological islands (raised podsol beaches, kerangas, humult sandy ukltisols over sandstone) with wingless fruit than on the widespread Sunda 'matrix' of loamy ultisols.



Peter

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From: Mastwatch <mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net>> on behalf of Mark Leighton <markleighton9 at yahoo.com<mailto:markleighton9 at yahoo.com>>
Sent: Thursday, March 28, 2019 1:45:09 PM
To: Lord Cranbrook; Tim Laman
Cc: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net>
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast

correct, Tim

On Thursday, March 28, 2019, 2:46:24 PM GMT+2, Tim Laman <tim at timlaman.com<mailto:tim at timlaman.com>> wrote:


Greetings all,

To add my two cents, I think what Peter meant mainly is that any limited lateral movement from the parent tree by the winged fruit is disrupted by the canopy below so they won’t keep moving sideways.  I don’t think a very large percentage of fruits get stuck in the canopy.  Most fall to the ground, but they certainly don’t get far.

For your enjoyment, here is a shot I took of the masting Shorea spp in the canopy in Gunung Palung in December with one of those very handy new-fangled drones.  While the Shorea fruits are positioned at the twig tips, you can see in the image that most will not get a “clean release” from their own tree crown, and will just tumble down to the ground beneath the tree.  But selection operates on rare events, right?  What about that big gust of wind that comes before thunderstorms?  Could that carry a few seeds from the top of the crown to some distance, and they survive better than the mass of seedlings beneath the tree?

Best,
Tim
[cid:image001.jpg at 01D4E587.69369F00]

On Mar 28, 2019, at 7:43 AM, Lord Cranbrook <lordcranbrook at greatglemhamfarms.co.uk<mailto:lordcranbrook at greatglemhamfarms.co.uk>> wrote:

THere are always 1000's of seedlings around the base of parent trees, after a mast year. l don't think wind dispersal is very effective.
Why are the wings so brightly coloured ?
ln Sarawak engkebang fruits also float down the rivers

From: Mastwatch [mailto:mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net] On Behalf Of Mikaail Kavanagh
Sent: 28 March 2019 04:15
To: Ashton, Peter; Wong Siew Te DJN; Andreas Carlson; mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net>
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast

Hi Friends,

Interesting point, Peter. I must confess to not knowing that so many of the winged fruit never make it to ground level.

Wong, the video that you circulated (thanks!) got me thinking about the relevance of the winged fruits in terms of evolutionary strategies for different sub-habitats and niches.  Presumably, there would be different selective pressures according to such differences?  In particular, has anyone looked at the wings' effect on floating - potentially for long distances - for such a riverside specialist as, for example, the Neram (Dipterocarpus oblongifolius)?

Thanks for sharing.

Mike

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On 27 Mar 2019, at 6:07 PM, Ashton, Peter <pashton at oeb.harvard.edu<mailto:pashton at oeb.harvard.edu>> wrote:

Hi Andreas and mastwatchers,

There have been several efforts to study the impact of dipterocarp winged fruit on their distance of dispersal. Bu don't forget that the vast majority rarely fall in a wind, and then only into the main canopy a few metres beneath. So studies of the comparative influence of winged versus winglessness on the fate of the embryo (trapped in the canopy versus dropping through (and then what?), survival, predation etc.) deserves study as well.

Peter
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From: Mastwatch <mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net>> on behalf of Andreas Carlson <acarlson at math.uio.no<mailto:acarlson at math.uio.no>>
Sent: Wednesday, March 27, 2019 1:54:08 AM
To: Siew Teu Wong
Cc: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net>
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast

Dear all,

This movie was absolutely stunning! We have been working on understanding how the geometry of these flying fruits influence their flight (https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.024501<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__journals.aps.org_prl_abstract_10.1103_PhysRevLett.122.024501&d=DwMGaQ&c=WO-RGvefibhHBZq3fL85hQ&r=QF7wtoDqCqPx93omg7bDZoXToRGpzsmD2pgreRf9a74&m=oEo1ZmDAtLb1DWViFO2kYJvttzDwwUn2NgZs9xNRjkc&s=yRfX3IQEdkRjsXw56pIl9QRoY70NNi19ALjC8c8aeb4&e=>).
Amazing to see this fruiting and fascinating flight!

Thanks for sharing.

Best,
Andreas.
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On 25 Mar 2019, at 10:02, Siew Te Wong <wongsiew at hotmail.com<mailto:wongsiew at hotmail.com>> wrote:

Hi all,
This video was posted in FB, taken somewhere in Sibu, Sarawak.
https://www.facebook.com/edgar.ong/videos/10155952528861232/<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.facebook.com_edgar.ong_videos_10155952528861232_&d=DwMGaQ&c=WO-RGvefibhHBZq3fL85hQ&r=QF7wtoDqCqPx93omg7bDZoXToRGpzsmD2pgreRf9a74&m=oEo1ZmDAtLb1DWViFO2kYJvttzDwwUn2NgZs9xNRjkc&s=3kTuXLViT1vPv-0l0R7tAj1rkKSbbR6BrMxqnUSp25o&e=>

Thank you.

Kindest regards,
Wong

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From: Mastwatch <mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net>> on behalf of Philipson Christopher David <christopher.philipson at usys.ethz.ch<mailto:christopher.philipson at usys.ethz.ch>>
Sent: Monday, March 4, 2019 6:23 PM
To: Cam Webb
Cc: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net>
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast

Hi Cam and all,

I just returned from south India and saw some dip fruiting in the forest reserves in Kerala.  Being seasonal forest its perhaps a bit less relevant to the Borneo fruiting - but it would be interesting to link these cycles climatically and genetically at some point!

Cheers
Chris

Dr. Christopher Philipson
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On 28 Feb 2019, at 18:53, Cam Webb <cam_webb at yahoo.com<mailto:cam_webb at yahoo.com>> wrote:

Thanks all, for the forest news from across Borneo (and beyond).

It seems the Gunung Palung mast was big: definitely biggest since Feb
2010, and maybe bigger than that one. Peak fruit fall was several weeks
ago. Dipterocarp flowering started in late Sept 2018. I’ll post more
details when I know them.

Best,

Cam
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