[Mastwatch] West Kal Mast

Ferry Slik ferryslik at hotmail.com
Thu Mar 28 18:48:14 PDT 2019


Should be possible to set up some projects to test at least some of these hypotheses.....

Ferry Slik
Associate Professor & Curator of the UBD Herbarium
Faculty of Science
Universiti Brunei Darussalam,
Jln Tungku Link, Gadong, BE1410, Brunei Darussalam.

Website
http://www.phylodiversity.net/fslik/
http://expert.ubd.edu.bn/profiles/johan.slik.php
<http://www.phylodiversity.net/fslik/>
Plants of Southeast Asia
http://www.asianplant.net<http://www.asianplant.net/>

Asian plant species synonym website
http://www.phylodiversity.net/fslik/synonym_lookup.htm

Faculty of Science
http://fos.ubd.edu.bn/index.html

________________________________
From: Mastwatch <mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net> on behalf of Corlett_XTBG <Corlett at xtbg.org.cn>
Sent: 29 March 2019 9:19 AM
To: 'Ghazoul Jaboury'; 'Chuck Cannon'; 'Ashton, Peter'
Cc: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast


Don¡¯t underestimate scatter-hoarding rodents for wingless dipterocarps. Recent studies show that they can disperse Fagaceae ¨C including Chuck¡¯s stone oaks - tens of metres by caching and re-caching, and big rats like Leopoldamys move them a long way in one go. Scatter-hoarding would select strongly against wings, since they would get caught on obstacles when being dragged sideways.



Richard



From: mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net [mailto:mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net] On Behalf Of Ghazoul Jaboury
Sent: Friday, March 29, 2019 12:04 AM
To: Chuck Cannon; Ashton, Peter
Cc: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast



I have been following this thread with interest. I agree that rare windy events have a substantial impact on dispersal. I have seen very large numbers of dipterocarp fruit dispersed great distances (100s of metres) during strong winds, albeit in rather open dry deciduous dipterocarp forests in Thailand. I have also seen large quantities of fruit being dispersed several tens of metres (at least) from dipterocarps in Sepilok, although this was in forest edge conditions.



Genetic studies suggest that dipterocarp seed dispersal can be quite substantial, and while no doubt the large majority of fruit are dropped close to the mother tree (see Smith et al. 2018 for a multispecies comparative assessment of this) what really matters are those seeds that survive, establish, and grow.



I have always been curious about why some dipterocarp species lost their wings. If substantial numbers of fruit do get caught in canopies and fail to establish, then there should be strong selection pressure against wings. I would expect strongly shade tolerant species to be more likely to have non-winged fruit. Wings are also likely to be of little value for subcanopy species, or those in dense forests, both in terms of dispersal function and shade tolerance traits (e.g., large fruit sizes). Localities that experience little wind such as, perhaps, sheltered riparian species, might be less likely to have wings than ridgetop species.



Jaboury





From: Mastwatch <mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net> On Behalf Of Chuck Cannon
Sent: 28 March 2019 15:44
To: Ashton, Peter <pashton at oeb.harvard.edu>
Cc: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast



Great discussion, everyone.



I agree with Tim Laman's remark about how these forests are largely shaped by rare events (that are statistically almost impossible to analyze) and trees do an enormous amount of bet hedging and experimentation in an attempt to win one of those lotteries.  A single tree probably does not pursue a single strategy for getting its seeds into an advantageous position but is simultaneously making numerous wagers.



In line with Peter's observation about the ones on more specialized and localized habitats having poorer dispersal abilities, you see the same thing in Lithocarpus.  The stone oaks are another group with rather mysterious dispersal.



Chuck



On Thu, Mar 28, 2019 at 9:18 AM Ashton, Peter <pashton at oeb.harvard.edu<mailto:pashton at oeb.harvard.edu>> wrote:

One further obs: There are a higher proportion of endemic dipterocarp species on ecological islands (raised podsol beaches, kerangas, humult sandy ukltisols over sandstone) with wingless fruit than on the widespread Sunda 'matrix' of loamy ultisols.



Peter

________________________________

From: Mastwatch <mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net>> on behalf of Mark Leighton <markleighton9 at yahoo.com<mailto:markleighton9 at yahoo.com>>
Sent: Thursday, March 28, 2019 1:45:09 PM
To: Lord Cranbrook; Tim Laman
Cc: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net>
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast



correct, Tim



On Thursday, March 28, 2019, 2:46:24 PM GMT+2, Tim Laman <tim at timlaman.com<mailto:tim at timlaman.com>> wrote:





Greetings all,



To add my two cents, I think what Peter meant mainly is that any limited lateral movement from the parent tree by the winged fruit is disrupted by the canopy below so they won¡¯t keep moving sideways.  I don¡¯t think a very large percentage of fruits get stuck in the canopy.  Most fall to the ground, but they certainly don¡¯t get far.



For your enjoyment, here is a shot I took of the masting Shorea spp in the canopy in Gunung Palung in December with one of those very handy new-fangled drones.  While the Shorea fruits are positioned at the twig tips, you can see in the image that most will not get a ¡°clean release¡± from their own tree crown, and will just tumble down to the ground beneath the tree.  But selection operates on rare events, right?  What about that big gust of wind that comes before thunderstorms?  Could that carry a few seeds from the top of the crown to some distance, and they survive better than the mass of seedlings beneath the tree?



Best,

Tim

[cid:image001.jpg at 01D4E610.89EBBC60]



On Mar 28, 2019, at 7:43 AM, Lord Cranbrook <lordcranbrook at greatglemhamfarms.co.uk<mailto:lordcranbrook at greatglemhamfarms.co.uk>> wrote:



THere are always 1000's of seedlings around the base of parent trees, after a mast year. l don't think wind dispersal is very effective.

Why are the wings so brightly coloured ?

ln Sarawak engkebang fruits also float down the rivers



From: Mastwatch [mailto:mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net] On Behalf Of Mikaail Kavanagh
Sent: 28 March 2019 04:15
To: Ashton, Peter; Wong Siew Te DJN; Andreas Carlson; mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net>
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast



Hi Friends,



Interesting point, Peter. I must confess to not knowing that so many of the winged fruit never make it to ground level.



Wong, the video that you circulated (thanks!) got me thinking about the relevance of the winged fruits in terms of evolutionary strategies for different sub-habitats and niches.  Presumably, there would be different selective pressures according to such differences?  In particular, has anyone looked at the wings' effect on floating - potentially for long distances - for such a riverside specialist as, for example, the Neram (Dipterocarpus oblongifolius)?



Thanks for sharing.



Mike



Dato¡¯ Dr Mikaail Kavanagh, MBE

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On 27 Mar 2019, at 6:07 PM, Ashton, Peter <pashton at oeb.harvard.edu<mailto:pashton at oeb.harvard.edu>> wrote:



Hi Andreas and mastwatchers,



There have been several efforts to study the impact of dipterocarp winged fruit on their distance of dispersal. Bu don't forget that the vast majority rarely fall in a wind, and then only into the main canopy a few metres beneath. So studies of the comparative influence of winged versus winglessness on the fate of the embryo (trapped in the canopy versus dropping through (and then what?), survival, predation etc.) deserves study as well.



Peter

________________________________

From: Mastwatch <mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net>> on behalf of Andreas Carlson <acarlson at math.uio.no<mailto:acarlson at math.uio.no>>
Sent: Wednesday, March 27, 2019 1:54:08 AM
To: Siew Teu Wong
Cc: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net>
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast



Dear all,



This movie was absolutely stunning! We have been working on understanding how the geometry of these flying fruits influence their flight (https://journals.aps.org/prl/abstract/10.1103/PhysRevLett.122.024501<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__journals.aps.org_prl_abstract_10.1103_PhysRevLett.122.024501&d=DwMGaQ&c=WO-RGvefibhHBZq3fL85hQ&r=QF7wtoDqCqPx93omg7bDZoXToRGpzsmD2pgreRf9a74&m=oEo1ZmDAtLb1DWViFO2kYJvttzDwwUn2NgZs9xNRjkc&s=yRfX3IQEdkRjsXw56pIl9QRoY70NNi19ALjC8c8aeb4&e=>).

Amazing to see this fruiting and fascinating flight!



Thanks for sharing.



Best,

Andreas.

¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª¡ª
Andreas Carlson
Associate Professor
Department of Mathematics
University of Oslo

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On 25 Mar 2019, at 10:02, Siew Te Wong <wongsiew at hotmail.com<mailto:wongsiew at hotmail.com>> wrote:



Hi all,

This video was posted in FB, taken somewhere in Sibu, Sarawak.

https://www.facebook.com/edgar.ong/videos/10155952528861232/<https://urldefense.proofpoint.com/v2/url?u=https-3A__www.facebook.com_edgar.ong_videos_10155952528861232_&d=DwMGaQ&c=WO-RGvefibhHBZq3fL85hQ&r=QF7wtoDqCqPx93omg7bDZoXToRGpzsmD2pgreRf9a74&m=oEo1ZmDAtLb1DWViFO2kYJvttzDwwUn2NgZs9xNRjkc&s=3kTuXLViT1vPv-0l0R7tAj1rkKSbbR6BrMxqnUSp25o&e=>



Thank you.



Kindest regards,

Wong



Dr (Hon) Wong Siew Te, D.J.N.

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"May all beings be happy, joyful, well, & at safety & peace!"



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From: Mastwatch <mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch-bounces at lists.phylodiversity.net>> on behalf of Philipson Christopher David <christopher.philipson at usys.ethz.ch<mailto:christopher.philipson at usys.ethz.ch>>
Sent: Monday, March 4, 2019 6:23 PM
To: Cam Webb
Cc: mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net<mailto:mastwatch at lists.phylodiversity.net>
Subject: Re: [Mastwatch] West Kal Mast



Hi Cam and all,



I just returned from south India and saw some dip fruiting in the forest reserves in Kerala.  Being seasonal forest its perhaps a bit less relevant to the Borneo fruiting - but it would be interesting to link these cycles climatically and genetically at some point!



Cheers

Chris



Dr. Christopher Philipson

christopher.philipson at usys.ethz.ch<mailto:christopher.philipson at usys.ethz.ch>



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On 28 Feb 2019, at 18:53, Cam Webb <cam_webb at yahoo.com<mailto:cam_webb at yahoo.com>> wrote:



Thanks all, for the forest news from across Borneo (and beyond).

It seems the Gunung Palung mast was big: definitely biggest since Feb
2010, and maybe bigger than that one. Peak fruit fall was several weeks
ago. Dipterocarp flowering started in late Sept 2018. I¡¯ll post more
details when I know them.

Best,

Cam
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